Pengertian Video Definisi Tinggi (HD, Full HD, dan Ultra HD)

Pengertian Video Definisi Tinggi (HD, Full HD, dan Ultra HD) - Disini saya akan menjelaskan tentang...

Pengertian Video Definisi Tinggi (HD, Full HD, dan Ultra HD) - Disini saya akan menjelaskan tentang jenis-jenis atau pengertian video definisi tinggi yang terdiri dari video HD, Full HD, bahkan Ultra HD. Pelajari Selengkapnya dengan membaca artikel dibawah ini:



High-Definition Video
Video definisi tinggi adalah video resolusi yang lebih tinggi dan kualitas dari definisi standar. Meskipun tidak ada makna standar untuk definisi tinggi, umumnya setiap gambar video dengan jauh lebih dari 480 garis horizontal (Amerika Utara) atau 576 garis horizontal (Eropa) dianggap definisi tinggi. 480 scan lines umumnya GENAP minimum meskipun sebagian besar sistem jauh melampaui itu. Gambar resolusi standar ditangkap pada tingkat yang lebih cepat dari normal (60 frame / detik Amerika Utara, 50 fps Eropa), dengan kamera kecepatan tinggi dapat dianggap definisi tinggi dalam beberapa konteks. Beberapa serial televisi ditembak di video definisi tinggi yang dibuat untuk terlihat seolah-olah mereka telah ditembak pada film, teknik yang sering dikenal sebagai filmizing.

Sejarah
Pertama Format pemindaian elektronik, 405 garis, adalah yang pertama "definisi tinggi" sistem televisi, sejak sistem mekanik diganti memiliki jauh lebih sedikit. Dari tahun 1939, Eropa dan Amerika Serikat mencoba 605 dan 441 baris sampai, pada tahun 1941, FCC mengamanatkan 525 untuk AS. Dalam masa perang Perancis, René Barthélemy diuji resolusi yang lebih tinggi, hingga 1042. Pada akhir tahun 1949, transmisi pejabat Prancis akhirnya dimulai dengan 819. Pada tahun 1984, bagaimanapun, standar ini ditinggalkan untuk 625-garis warna pada jaringan TF1.

1980
Spesifikasi HD modern tanggal ke awal 1980-an, ketika insinyur Jepang mengembangkan HighVision 1125-garis standar TV interlaced (juga disebut MUSE) yang berlari pada 60 frame per detik. Sistem Sony HDVS dipresentasikan pada pertemuan internasional insinyur televisi di Aljir, April 1981 dan NHK Jepang disajikan sistem HDTV analog pada konferensi Swiss pada tahun 1983.
Sistem NHK adalah standar di Amerika Serikat sebagai Society of Motion Picture dan Television Engineers (SMPTE) standar # 240M di awal 1990-an, tetapi ditinggalkan nanti pada saat itu digantikan oleh standar DVB analog. HighVision video masih dapat digunakan untuk video HDTV interchange, tapi hampir tidak ada peralatan modern tersedia untuk melakukan fungsi ini. Upaya menerapkan HighVision sebagai saluran siaran 6 MHz sebagian besar tidak berhasil. Semua upaya menggunakan format ini untuk transmisi TV terestrial ditinggalkan oleh pertengahan 1990-an. [Rujukan?]
Eropa mengembangkan HD-MAC (1.250 baris, 50 Hz), anggota dari keluarga MAC hibrida analog / standar video digital; Namun, hal itu tidak pernah melepas sebagai format transmisi video terestrial. HD-MAC tidak pernah ditunjuk untuk video interchange kecuali oleh European Broadcasting Union.
Standar video definisi tinggi saat ini di Amerika Utara dikembangkan selama proses televisi canggih diprakarsai oleh Komisi Komunikasi Federal pada tahun 1987 atas permintaan penyiar Amerika. Pada intinya, akhir tahun 1980-an adalah lonceng kematian bagi kebanyakan analog teknologi definisi tinggi yang telah dikembangkan sampai saat itu.

1990
Proses FCC, yang dipimpin oleh Komite Sistem Televisi Lanjutan (ATSC) mengadopsi berbagai standar dari interlaced video yang 1.080-line (keturunan teknis dari analog asli NHK sistem 1125-1130 Hz) dengan frame rate maksimum 60 Hz, dan Video 720-line, semakin dipindai, dengan frame rate maksimum 60 Hz. Pada akhirnya, bagaimanapun, standar DVB resolusi (1080, 720, 480) dan frame rate masing-masing (24, 25, 30) diadopsi dalam hubungannya dengan orang Eropa yang juga terlibat di proses standarisasi yang sama. FCC resmi mengadopsi standar ATSC transmisi (yang termasuk baik HD dan standar video SD) pada tahun 1996, dengan siaran pertama pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1998.

2000
Pada awal 2000-an, itu tampak seolah-olah DVB akan menjadi standar video yang jauh ke masa depan. Namun, baik Brasil dan Cina telah mengadopsi standar alternatif untuk video definisi tinggi [rujukan?] Yang menghalangi interoperabilitas yang diharapkan setelah puluhan tahun sebagian besar non-interoperable siaran TV analog.

Rincian teknis
Video definisi tinggi (direkam dan disiarkan) didefinisikan tiga kali lipat, oleh:
Jumlah baris dalam resolusi layar vertikal. Televisi definisi tinggi (HDTV) adalah resolusi 1080 atau 720 baris. Sebaliknya, televisi digital biasa (DTV) adalah 480 baris (atas mana NTSC didasarkan, 480 scanlines terlihat dari 525) atau 576 baris (di mana PAL / SECAM didasarkan, 576 scanlines terlihat dari 625). Namun, karena HD disiarkan secara digital, diperkenalkan kadang bertepatan dengan pengenalan DTV. Selain itu, kualitas DVD saat ini tidak high-definition, meskipun sistem disc definisi tinggi Blu-ray Disc dan HD DVD yang.
Pemindaian sistem: pemindaian progresif (p) atau interlaced scanning (i). Progresif pemindaian (p) redraws frame gambar (semua lini) ketika menyegarkan setiap gambar, misalnya 720p / 1080p. Interlaced scanning (i) menarik bidang gambar setiap baris atau "aneh bernomor" garis selama refresh image operasi pertama, dan kemudian menarik sisa "bahkan nomor" baris selama menyegarkan kedua, misalnya 1080i. Pemindaian interlaced menghasilkan resolusi gambar yang lebih besar jika subjek tidak bergerak, tetapi kehilangan hingga setengah dari resolusi dan menderita "menyisir" artefak ketika subjek bergerak.
Jumlah frame atau bidang per detik (Hz). Di Eropa lebih umum (50 Hz) sistem penyiaran televisi dan di Amerika Serikat (60 Hz). Format 720p60 adalah 1.280 × 720 piksel, encoding progresif dengan 60 frame per detik (60 Hz). Format 1080i50 / 1080i60 adalah 1920 × 1080 piksel, encoding interlaced dengan 50/60 bidang, (50/60 Hz) per detik. Dua bidang interlaced merumuskan satu frame, karena dua bidang satu frame yang temporal bergeser. Bingkai pull-down dan frame tersegmentasi teknik khusus yang memungkinkan transmisi frame penuh dengan cara streaming video interlaced.
Seringkali, angka ini disimpulkan dari konteks, biasanya diasumsikan baik 50 Hz (Eropa) atau 60 Hz (USA), kecuali untuk 1080p, yang menunjukkan 1080p24, 1080p25, dan 1080p30, tetapi juga 1080p50 dan 1080p60.
Sebuah frame atau lapangan tingkat juga dapat ditentukan tanpa resolusi. Misalnya, 24p berarti 24 frame progressive scan per detik dan 50i berarti 25 frame progresif per detik, yang terdiri dari 50 bidang interlaced per detik. Kebanyakan sistem HDTV mendukung beberapa resolusi standar dan frame rate atau lapangan. Yang paling umum tertera di bawah. Sinyal definisi tinggi memerlukan televisi definisi tinggi atau monitor komputer untuk dilihat. Video definisi tinggi memiliki rasio aspek 16: 9 (1,78: 1). Aspek rasio film layar lebar yang biasa ditembak hari biasanya 1,85: 1 atau 2,39: 1 (kadang-kadang secara tradisional dikutip pada 2,35: 1). Televisi definisi standar (SDTV) memiliki 4: 3 (1.33: 1) aspek rasio, meskipun dalam beberapa tahun terakhir banyak lembaga penyiaran telah ditransmisikan program "diperas" horizontal di format 16: 9 anamorphic, dengan harapan bahwa penonton memiliki 16: 9 set yang membentang gambar untuk tampak normal proporsi, atau satu set yang "squishes" gambar secara vertikal untuk menyajikan "surat" pandangan gambar, lagi dengan proporsi yang benar.

Common high-definition video modes
720p = 1,280×720 (Frame Size), 921,600 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 72 (Frame rate Hz)
1080i = 1,920×1,080 (Frame Size), 2,073,600 (Pixels), Interlaced (Scanning type), and 25 (50 fields/s), 29.97 (59.94 fields/s), 30 (60 fields/s) (Frame rate Hz)
1080p = 1,920×1,080 (Frame Size), 2,073,600 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 24 (23.976), 25, 30 (29.97), 50, 60 (59.94) (Frame rate Hz)
1440p = 2,560×1,440 (Frame Size), 3,686,400 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 24 (23.976), 25, 30 (29.97), 50, 60 (59.94) (Frame rate Hz)

Ultra high-definition video modes
2000 = 2,048×1,536 (Frame Size), 3,145,728 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 24 (Frame rate Hz)
2160p (also known as 4k) = 3,840×2,160 (Frame Size), 8,294,400 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 60, 120 (Frame rate Hz)
2540p = 4,520×2,540 (Frame Size), 11,480,800 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 4000p (Frame rate Hz)
4320p (also known as 8k) = 7,680×4,320 (Frame Size), 33,177,600 (Pixels), Progressive (Scanning type), and 60, 120 (Frame rate Hz)
Note: 1 Image is either a frame or, in case of interlaced scanning, two fields. (EVEN and ODD)


English Version

High-definition video
High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 horizontal lines (North America) or 576 horizontal lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum evens though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal (60 frames/second North America, 50 fps Europe), by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts. Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.

History
The first electronic scanning format, 405 lines, was the first "high definition" television system, since the mechanical systems it replaced had far fewer. From 1939, Europe and the US tried 605 and 441 lines until, in 1941, the FCC mandated 525 for the US. In wartime France, René Barthélemy tested higher resolutions, up to 1,042. In late 1949, official French transmissions finally began with 819. In 1984, however, this standard was abandoned for 625-line color on the TF1 network.

1980s
Modern HD specifications date to the early 1980s, when Japanese engineers developed the HighVision 1,125-line interlaced TV standard (also called MUSE) that ran at 60 frames per second. The Sony HDVS system was presented at an international meeting of television engineers in Algiers, April 1981 and Japan's NHK presented its analog HDTV system at a Swiss conference in 1983.
The NHK system was standardized in the United States as Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standard #240M in the early 1990s, but abandoned later on when it was replaced by a DVB analog standard. HighVision video is still usable for HDTV video interchange, but there is almost no modern equipment available to perform this function. Attempts at implementing HighVision as a 6 MHz broadcast channel were mostly unsuccessful. All attempts at using this format for terrestrial TV transmission were abandoned by the mid-1990s.[citation needed]
Europe developed HD-MAC (1,250 lines, 50 Hz), a member of the MAC family of hybrid analogue/digital video standards; however, it never took off as a terrestrial video transmission format. HD-MAC was never designated for video interchange except by the European Broadcasting Union.
The current high-definition video standards in North America were developed during the course of the advanced television process initiated by the Federal Communications Commission in 1987 at the request of American broadcasters. In essence, the end of the 1980s was a death knell for most analog high definition technologies that had developed up to that time.

1990s
The FCC process, led by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) adopted a range of standards from interlaced 1,080-line video (a technical descendant of the original analog NHK 1125/30 Hz system) with a maximum frame rate of 60 Hz, and 720-line video, progressively scanned, with a maximum frame rate of 60 Hz. In the end, however, the DVB standard of resolutions (1080, 720, 480) and respective frame rates (24, 25, 30) were adopted in conjunction with the Europeans that were also involved in the same standardization process. The FCC officially adopted the ATSC transmission standard (which included both HD and SD video standards) in 1996, with the first broadcasts on October 28, 1998.

2000s
In the early 2000s, it looked as if DVB would be the video standard far into the future. However, both Brazil and China have adopted alternative standards for high-definition video[citation needed] that preclude the interoperability that was hoped for after decades of largely non-interoperable analog TV broadcasting.

Technical details
High definition video (prerecorded and broadcast) is defined threefold, by:
The number of lines in the vertical display resolution. High-definition television (HDTV) resolution is 1,080 or 720 lines. In contrast, regular digital television (DTV) is 480 lines (upon which NTSC is based, 480 visible scanlines out of 525) or 576 lines (upon which PAL/SECAM are based, 576 visible scanlines out of 625). However, since HD is broadcast digitally, its introduction sometimes coincides with the introduction of DTV. Additionally, current DVD quality is not high-definition, although the high-definition disc systems Blu-ray Disc and the HD DVD are.
The scanning system: progressive scanning (p) or interlaced scanning (i). Progressive scanning (p) redraws an image frame (all of its lines) when refreshing each image, for example 720p/1080p. Interlaced scanning (i) draws the image field every other line or "odd numbered" lines during the first image refresh operation, and then draws the remaining "even numbered" lines during a second refreshing, for example 1080i. Interlaced scanning yields greater image resolution if subject is not moving, but loses up to half of the resolution and suffers "combing" artifacts when subject is moving.
The number of frames or fields per second (Hz). In Europe more common (50 Hz) television broadcasting system and in USA (60 Hz). The 720p60 format is 1,280 × 720 pixels, progressive encoding with 60 frames per second (60 Hz). The 1080i50/1080i60 format is 1920 × 1080 pixels, interlaced encoding with 50/60 fields, (50/60 Hz) per second. Two interlaced fields formulate a single frame, because the two fields of one frame are temporally shifted. Frame pulldown and segmented frames are special techniques that allow transmitting full frames by means of interlaced video stream.
Often, the rate is inferred from the context, usually assumed to be either 50 Hz (Europe) or 60 Hz (USA), except for 1080p, which denotes 1080p24, 1080p25, and 1080p30, but also 1080p50 and 1080p60.
A frame or field rate can also be specified without a resolution. For example, 24p means 24 progressive scan frames per second and 50i means 25 progressive frames per second, consisting of 50 interlaced fields per second. Most HDTV systems support some standard resolutions and frame or field rates. The most common are noted below. High-definition signals require a high-definition television or computer monitor in order to be viewed. High-definition video has an aspect ratio of 16:9 (1.78:1). The aspect ratio of regular widescreen film shot today is typically 1.85:1 or 2.39:1 (sometimes traditionally quoted at 2.35:1). Standard-definition television (SDTV) has a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio, although in recent years many broadcasters have transmitted programs "squeezed" horizontally in 16:9 anamorphic format, in hopes that the viewer has a 16:9 set which stretches the image out to normal-looking proportions, or a set which "squishes" the image vertically to present a "letterbox" view of the image, again with correct proportions.


Reference : Wikipedia

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